By James C. Bobrow MD
Stories the anatomy, body structure, embryology and pathology of the lens. Covers the epidemiology, overview and administration of cataracts; supplies an outline of lens and cataract surgical procedure; and explores the issues and distinct events of cataract surgical procedure. final significant revision 2008 2009.
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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 11: Lens and Cataract (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Philadelphi a: Harper & Row; 1982:33 1- 353. Congenital Anomalies and Abnormalities Congenital Aphakia The lens is absent in congenital aphakia, a very rare anomaly. Two forms of congenital apha kia have been described. In primary aphakia, the lens placode fails to form from the surface ectoderm in the developing embryo. In secondary aphakia, the more common type, the developing lens is spontaneously absorbed. Both for ms of aphakia are usually associated with other malformations of the eye. Lenticonus and Lentiglobus Lenticonus is a locali zed, cone-shaped deformation of the anterior or posterior lens surface (Fig 4-4).
Conditions such as refrigeration that inactivate the energy-dependent enzyme pumps also abolish these gradients. Most of the Na+,K+-ATPase activity is fo und in the lens epithelium and the superficial cortical fiber cells. The active transport mechanisms are lost if the capsule and attached epithelium are removed from the lens but not if the capsule alone is removed by enzymatic degradation with collagenase. These find ings support the hypothesis that the epithelium is the primary site for active tran sport in the lens.
Cortical Cataracts In contrast to nuclear cataracts, cortical cataracts are associated \vith the local disruption of the structure of mature fiber cells. Once me mbrane integrity is compromised, essential metabolites are lost from the affected cells. This loss leads to extensive protein oxidation and precipitation. Cortical cataracts are usually bilateral but are often asymmetric. Their effect on visual function varies greatly, depending on the location of the opacification relative to the visual axis.