By American Academy of Ophthalmology, James C. Bobrow MD
Reports the anatomy, body structure, embryology and pathology of the lens. Covers the epidemiology, assessment and administration of cataracts and provides an outline of lens and cataract surgical procedure, together with designated events. part eleven additionally walks the reader via making a suitable differential prognosis and designing a administration plan for intraoperative and postoperative issues of cataract surgery.
Upon of completion of part eleven, readers could be capable to:
Identify congenital anomalies of the lens
List forms of congenital and bought cataracts
Describe the organization of cataracts with getting older, trauma, medicinal drugs, and systemic and ocular diseases
Describe the assessment and administration of sufferers with cataract and different lens abnormalities
Read Online or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 11: Lens and Cataract PDF
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Extra info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 11: Lens and Cataract
In: Albert DM, Jakobiec FA, eds. Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2000:3685-3749. • CHAPTER 4 . Pathology Age-Related Lens Changes As the lens ages, it increases in mass and thickness and decreases in accommodative power. As new layers of cortical fibers form concentrically, the lens nucleus undergoes compression and hardening (nuclear sclerosis). Chemical modification and proteolytic cleavage of crystallins (lens proteins) result in the formation of high-molecular-mass protein aggregates.
Posterior polar cataracts generally produce more visual impairment than do anterior polar cataracts because they tend to be larger and are positioned closer to the nodal point of the eye. Capsular fragility has been reported. Posterior polar cataracts are usually stable but occasionally progress. They may be familial or sporadic. Familial posterior polar cataracts are usually bilateral and inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Sporadic posterior polar cataracts are often unilateral and may be associated with remnants of the tunica vasculosa lentis or with an abnormality of the posterior capsule such as lenticonus or lentiglobus.
In addition, both vitamin E and ascorbic acid are present in the lens. Each of these substances can act as a free radical scavenger and thus protect against oxidative damage. Increasing oxygen levels within the eye may have a role in cataract formation. Exposure of the lens to an increased level of oxygen during long-term hyperbaric oxygen therapy leads to a myopic shift, increased opacification of the lens nucleus, and, in many cases, the formation of nuclear cataracts. The lens is also exposed to increased levels of oxygen acutely during retinal surgery and chronically following vitrectomy.