By Renata Dmowska, Barry Saltzman
This sequence presents a venue for longer studies of present advances in geophysics. Written at a degree available to graduate scholars, the articles serve to expand wisdom of assorted fields and should be precious in classes and seminars.
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Does the distribution of the LFV spectrum noticeably depart from that of the pure white-noise case. 1 far exceeds unity. A more thorough experiment employing ensembles of 1000 random trials ŽTable II. demonstrates that the correct rates of chance exceedence of given conﬁdence levels are indeed obtained for all but the largest value of . Thus, the null distribution of the LFV spectrum has been shown to conform to the pure white-noise distribution under precisely those conditions for which our a priori deﬁnition of a smoothly varying colored-noise spectrum is satisﬁed.
The impact of systematic biases in the collection of data, hidden in the processing stage of gridded monthly data typically used for climate studies, exhibits a greater potential to decrease the ﬁdelity of these records, but considerable attempts have been made to document and ameliorate the impacts of such biases in gridded climate 46 MICHAEL E. MANN AND JEFFREY PARK FIG. 13. Comparison of LFV spectrum for complete data set and for the case where temporal gaps are present Žsee text. which are linearly interpolated.
This information is often more physically portrayed in terms of a sequence of real-valued anomaly patterns Žpositive or negative values of the anomaly ﬁeld. , Mann and Park, 1996b.. The complex-valued K-vector v1 can be inverted to obtain the slowly varying envelope of the signal, similar to the complex demodulate. Park Ž1992. and Park and Maasch Ž1993. show how the slowly varying envelope OSCILLATORY SPATIOTEMPORAL SIGNAL DETECTION 35 AŽ t . of an oscillatory signal x Ž t . ᑬ Ä AŽ t . , l 1, .