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Additional info for Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms
The scatter of the HEXOS data on the heat flux coefficient is even greater than on the vapor flux, but again, they do not rule out slow increase over the range of wind speeds encountered. Observations on the distribution of mean temperature and humidity with height in the surface layer are usually reported as data on the roughness lengths z t and z q . Such data have shown that while z 0 of the velocity distribution increases with wind speed, the similar scalar roughnesses z t , z q decrease. Also, the latter are much smaller than z 0 , by some two orders of magnitude (all three corrected for buoyancy to neutral values).
10 here, from Bradley et al. (1991). 56 × 10−3 , according to the smooth law. 10 Drag coefficients at low wind speeds, from Bradley et al. (1991). The lines show formulae recommended by different authors. at 3 m s−1 , although the observations taken in the subtropical Atlantic remain closer to it than the Southern Ocean ones. The very high drag coefficients at very low wind speeds, reported in all three recent studies, were obtained by the dissipation method, the validity of which under such challenging conditions remains to be confirmed.
5 ln S √ , u Ka g gh K a g 4/3 . 61q ∗ u ∗2 T 1/4 and X (x) = ln 1+x 1 + x2 + 2 ln − 2 tan−1 (x) + π/2 . 70 defines a surface in u ∗ , θ ∗ , q ∗ space. A triplet of observed Forces U (h), θ(h) − θs , q(h) − qs defines three surfaces, hopefully intersecting in a single point. It would be nice to explore the mathematical properties of this system of rather complex equations. 7 Entropy Production In our previous analyses of air-sea transfer processes for momentum, heat and vapor, we have shown that the local Force-Flux products are generators of TKE, TTV, and THV, the dissipation rates of which, multiplied by appropriate proportionality constants, are all entropy sources.