# Download An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment by William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team PDF

By William N. Venables, David M. Smith, R Development Core Team

ISBN-10: 3900051127

ISBN-13: 9783900051129

**Read Online or Download An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics PDF**

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**Additional info for An Introduction to R: Notes on R: A Programming Environment for Data Analysis and Graphics**

**Example text**

First we define a function called cube. cube <- function(n) { sq <- function() n*n n*sq() } The variable n in the function sq is not an argument to that function. Therefore it is a free variable and the scoping rules must be used to ascertain the value that is to be associated with it. Under static scope (S-Plus) the value is that associated with a global variable named n. Under lexical scope (R) it is the parameter to the function cube since that is the active binding for the variable n at the time the function sq was defined.

The result is a matrix with the concatenated arguments arg 1, arg 2, . . forming the columns. If some of the arguments to cbind() are vectors they may be shorter than the column size of any matrices present, in which case they are cyclically extended to match the matrix column size (or the length of the longest vector if no matrices are given). The function rbind() does the corresponding operation for rows. In this case any vector argument, possibly cyclically extended, are of course taken as row vectors.

M_1 / M_2 M_1 + M_2 %in% M_1 . M ^n All terms in M together with “interactions” up to order n I(M ) Insulate M. Inside M all operators have their normal arithmetic meaning, and that term appears in the model matrix. Note that inside the parentheses that usually enclose function arguments all operators have their normal arithmetic meaning. The function I() is an identity function used to allow terms in model formulae to be defined using arithmetic operators. Note particularly that the model formulae specify the columns of the model matrix, the specification of the parameters being implicit.